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CPI Affiliation Increase 2011

first_imgThe Board of Management agreed that affiliation fees set annually should accommodate increases in the inflated costs of services. Accordingly, the Board of Management moved and approved that annual fees would be set for competitions held within each calendar year; and that the fee set would be adjusted each year to reflect movements in Consumer Price Index (CPI). The year being 1 January to 31 December (2011 first year) and would relate to competitions commencing in the dates described. Accordingly, members are advised that the national affiliation fee (per team) will be increased to $72 (GST exclusive) for all competitions commencing after 1 January 2011 (Season 1 2011).Please click on the attachment for more information. Related Filestfa_affiliation_110110-pdflast_img

Video: Here’s Footage Of The Two Llamas Evading Capture Set To Rod Bramblett’s “Kick Six” Audio Call

first_imgRunaway llamas that went viral in 2015.Two llamas, one white and one black, got loose today in Phoenix and set off a chase that lasted a half-hour. Their chase went viral, leading to some fantastic memes and funny content. Both llamas showed impressive elusiveness, and one person decided to pay tribute to their escapability. He did so by dubbing Auburn radio announcer Rod Bramblett’s famous “Kick Six” call from the 2013 Iron Bowl over footage of the llamas evading capture.Take a look, and a listen:Well-done, and it seems like the white llama at least is a higher-rated prospect than Kick-Six hero Chris Davis was.BREAKING: We now have a new no. 1 player in the @247Sports Composite! #llamas #TeamLlama pic.twitter.com/G4YYY2J27u— 247Sports (@247Sports) February 26, 2015last_img

Whats The Best Way To Build a Major League Baseball Team

“Moneyball” told the story of a plucky Oakland A’s team that exploited market inefficiencies, overcame the loss of several excellent players and went on to have one of the best seven-year runs in franchise history. Today’s A’s have won two straight AL West titles and are in the hunt for a third. They also have fewer elite homegrown players than their predecessors did a decade ago — even the most hardcore baseball fans would have a tough time naming a single A’s superstar. Given their lack of top talent, and the extremely subtle methods they’ve used to build a winner, you could argue that today’s A’s are even more “Moneyball” than their forebears were.The A’s lack of reliance on star players, combined with their recent success, has engendered numerous articles singing their praises and extolling the virtue of a team that uses balance, depth and versatility (and not star power) to win games. Hell, even the defending champion Boston Red Sox — a big-revenue ballclub with a $155 million Opening Day payroll — embraced the power of roster balance and depth to win it all.It’s easy to praise that kind of balanced approach as shrewd. It’s equally easy to denigrate teams that spend a boatload of money on a few famous veterans, leaving the rest of the team fighting for the last few dollars left. But is one tack really more effective than the other? If you want to build a winning baseball team, which strategy works best — a balanced roster, or one made up of stars and scrubs?To answer this question, we used a favorite tool of economists: the Gini coefficient. Typically, the Gini coefficient measures income distribution among a large group of people. We can apply the same principle to roster construction, by using wins above replacement. The Gini coefficient runs on a scale of 0 to 1, with the most unequal distribution coming closer to 1, and more balanced distribution shading closer to 0. A stars-and-scrubs roster would have more WAR variance among players and thus a higher Gini score. A balanced roster would have players bunched closer together by WAR, and thus a lower Gini score.The baseball statistics site FanGraphs’ version of WAR is calibrated to reflect year-end win totals. So if you have two teams generating 50 wins at the end of the season, one with a stars-and-scrubs roster, the other with a balanced squad, the team that will perform better is … neither. After 162 games, wins are wins, regardless of how you acquire them.The best way to solve this problem is to use monthly WAR data, which the good folks of FanGraphs were able to provide. We looked at WAR and WAR distribution for the month of April each year from 1974 through 2013.1Only one season, strike-shortened 1995, wasn’t included in the results. We ran month-by-month Gini data for every team going back those 40 years, tracking WAR inequality for the month, then comparing that result to WAR totals for the rest of the season, to see which of the two roster construction methods yielded more wins.The result? Having a larger Gini coefficient (as you’d see in a stars-and-scrubs roster) is ever so slightly associated with better outcomes over the rest of the season. However, the effect wasn’t large enough to be statistically significant, so this analysis says a team should probably just be indifferent about which approach it uses to build a roster.Of course, this merely tells us about future outcomes for teams that have certain WAR distributions in April. Trying a different route, we split up the monthly data into half-seasons, to see whether this finding (that Gini doesn’t matter after controlling for WAR) holds for a different timeframe. We computed each team’s WAR Gini number for each half-season — June and before, and July and after. Once again, we found that the Gini number was nowhere near statistically significant.Taking one last stab at the problem, we broke seasons up into even and odd months, just in case there was something about a pre- and post-July sample of games that might skew the results. At last, we found a Gini coefficient that was pretty close to being statistically significant. But here’s the thing: The effect was still very small for the purposes of measuring real-life wins and losses. For every one standard deviation of change in the Gini number, you get 0.37 wins per 162 games2In order to account for teams playing different numbers of games in different chunks of the season, the regression was run on WAR per game numbers. We multiplied the regression coefficient by 162 to arrive at the per-162 game rate. — about the same effect as replacing the crappy last guy on your bench with a slightly less crappy 25th man.Looking at the numbers as a whole, we arrive at this conclusion: Build a balanced roster or a stars-and-scrubs roster. Either way, which players are good, and how good they are individually, doesn’t make any difference after we control for how good the team is in the aggregate. The moral of the story is to find players who generate as much value as possible, in whatever combination, period.But if the way teams get their wins doesn’t matter much when looking at the forest, there might still be some lessons we can learn by zooming in on a few trees. Specifically, the most and least balanced teams in our data set.The most imbalanced team during our 40-year stretch was the 2004 Arizona Diamondbacks. And man, did they suck. The D-Backs won just 51 games that year, and lost 111. Only one team in the past 40 years lost more games: the 2003 Detroit Tigers, who went 43-119.3The 2013 Astros likewise posted a 51-111 record, matching those lousy ’04 Diamondbacks. The Astros have been roundly criticized for tanking — not for losing on purpose per se, but for running out an anachronistically tiny $26 million payroll last year, and being content to pocket No. 1 draft picks. They’ll pick first again in this year’s draft, and are the favorites to do so next year, too. Those Diamondbacks employed Randy Johnson, who in 2004 reeled off the seventh-best season by any starting pitcher in the past 40 years, racking up 9.5 wins above replacement.4Tying with 2000 Randy Johnson and 1995 Randy Johnson. In fact, the Big Unit posted five of the nine best seasons by any pitcher in that four-decade span, with Roger Clemens and Pedro Martinez claiming two top seasons each. Randy Johnson was really, really freaking good. Only one other player on that D-Backs team, fellow starting pitcher Brandon Webb, produced more than two wins above replacement that year; a two-win player is a league average player, which means only two members of the ’04 Diamondbacks even managed to be better than average.Turns out that D-Backs club wasn’t unique when it comes to an extreme stars-and-scrubs roster and lousy results. The 16 teams with the biggest WAR distribution in our study all finished below .500. Combined, they averaged fewer than 64 wins per season. You can win quite a few games with LeBron James and a bunch of crummy players, because the best basketball players deliver far more value than the best baseball players.5There are many reasons for this, but it boils down having only five basketball players on the court at the same time, and the best players not needing to wait their turn in the same way that an elite hitter has to wait for eight other guys to bat before he can stride to the plate. One superstar and 24 Oompa Loompas gets you nowhere in baseball.The most balanced team in our study was the 1976 Pittsburgh Pirates. The Buccos won 92 games that year, led by strong contributions from multiple quality players. The team’s top five starting pitchers all delivered above-average seasons, with Bruce Kison, Jerry Reuss, Doc Medich, John Candelaria and Jim Rooker all producing two or more wins above replacement. Six of the eight position players with the most plate appearances — Richie Zisk, Al Oliver, Dave Parker, Frank Taveras, Bill Robinson and Manny Sanguillén — produced above-average seasons.Here again we find that at the extremes, roster composition does seem to matter. The eight most balanced teams in our sample all finished at .500 or better, averaging 94 wins a season.Really, it comes down to this: There are advantages and disadvantages to both roster-building approaches. Assembling a deep and balanced group of players insulates you against one injury torpedoing your entire team. But there are still legitimate reasons to pay the best players $25 million a year or more; an elite baseball player might not be worth 20-plus wins the way the top NBA superstars are, but tacking seven, eight or more wins onto your team’s ledger can make a big difference.Even the scrubs element of the stars-and-scrubs approach can be a blessing in disguise. If a severely imbalanced team gets to the trade deadline and is in contention, it’s much easier to acquire a decent player who’ll be an upgrade over its terrible existing option than it is to do the same for a balanced team that already has decent players at every position.We might get a few more test cases on both ends of the spectrum this year. The deep and balanced A’s are tied for first place in the AL West. On the other hand, the New York Yankees project as one of the most extreme examples of a stars-and-scrubs roster. They employ multiple high-value players like Masahiro Tanaka, Hiroki Kuroda, Jacoby Ellsbury, Brett Gardner, Carlos Beltran and Brian McCann, but also a highly questionable infield that includes Mark Teixeira with a bum wrist; aging, injury-prone second baseman Brian Roberts; a third-base combination of Yangervis Solarte and Kelly Johnson that’s off to a hot start but figures to regress dramatically; plus Derek Jeter, the Hall of Fame shortstop now on his last legs. So far, that approach has worked, with the Yankees leading the AL East, and the possibility of trades to upgrade weak positions looms in June and July.6Acquiring quality second baseman Aaron Hill from the last-place Diamondbacks makes so much sense, it’s criminal. And that’s before we even touch the close relationship that exists between Yankees general manager Brian Cashman and Arizona GM Kevin Towers.A poor team like the A’s might have no choice but to pursue that balanced method, since they lack the big revenue stream that would allow them to pay multiple veteran superstars. Doubly so without the army of homegrown stars like Barry Zito, Tim Hudson, Mark Mulder, Jason Giambi, Eric Chavez and Miguel Tejada who led the way for the “Moneyball” A’s. Meanwhile, the Yankees might never be able to resist the siren song of a $100 million (or $275 million) player. If the two approaches deliver similar results, that could be an equalizer for low-budget teams trying to keep up with their richer rivals. read more

Gundogan on why City must win the Champions League

first_imgIlkay Gundogan believes Manchester City must win the Champions League to be noted as an elite football club.The Citizens have managed just one semi-final in their pursuit for Europe’s greatest prize in football and Gundogan feels they ought to break the jinx.Having won every trophy in the domestic scene, the Champions League is one prize that is still eluding the club.“We’ve experienced a lot in the Champions League in recent years – not all of it positive, of course, and we should’ve won it at least once,” said the Germany midfielder via the Mirror.“Every club, every team, every single player would like to lift this trophy sometime. The competition to win it is so big year in, year out, so your chances are not that good, but there’s a team that wins it every year.“If you want to be in the international elite, as a club, and as a player, you need to clinch this trophy.“If we were to win it someday, the club would enter a new era – the same level as Real, Barca, Bayern or Juventus .”City are expected to take the next step by overcoming Gundogan’s hometown club Schalke in the last 16.Time for the knock-outs! ⚽️Sergio Ramos, Champions League, Real MadridSergio Ramos would love a fifth Champions League trophy Manuel R. Medina – September 10, 2019 According to Real Madrid captain Sergio Ramos, winning a fifth European trophy with his club would be crazy, but he wants to do it before retiring.Who’s getting pumped for Wednesday?#s04vcity 🔵 #mancity pic.twitter.com/j4yZADHTH1— Manchester City (@ManCity) February 18, 2019The first leg is in Gelsenkirchen on Wednesday and Gundogan accepts City are hot favourites because of the club’s contrasting fortunes.The gulf in class between the two sides is huge with Pep Guardiola’s men chasing the Quadruple, while Schalke are struggling in 14th place in the BundesligaHowever, Gundogan claims they must be wary of the threat the German side pose.“We are clear favourites in this tie and rightly so,” he said. “However, every team in the last 16 has earned the right to be there.“Because of that, we’ll respect our opponents and prepare for it as if it’s a final because it’s the knockout phase and every mistake can be severely punished.”last_img read more

Odierno Remains Anxious over Armys Declining End Strength

first_img Dan Cohen AUTHOR Army Chief of Staff Gen. Ray Odierno on Wednesday warned that the service risks sacrificing its long-term viability if stringent spending caps remain in place.“I believe this nation is at an important inflection point, specifically regarding national security,” Odierno said during his last Pentagon press briefing as he prepares to retire from the Army after almost 40 years of service. “Our security environment remains uncertain and dynamic,” he said, “with increasing requirements on our military while we continue to have decreasing resources in our military. This is of great concern to me.”With an ever-growing list of global crises, the Army is in jeopardy of becoming too small, Odierno told Army Times earlier this week. “If we get small enough where some of these [world] leaders don’t believe the Army can respond or deter them, if you can’t … deter them from believing they can accomplish something … that increases the threats and danger to the United States,” Odierno said. “And I don’t know what that level is, but I think we’re getting dangerously close to that level now.”The Army’s active-duty end strength has dropped from 570,000 to 490,000 since 2012, by eliminating 13 brigade combat teams. In July the service announced plans to cut 40,000 more soldiers by the end of fiscal 2018. Officials will be forced to shed an additional 30,000 soldiers — reaching a force of 420,000 — by FY 2019 if the Budget Control Acts caps are re-imposed next year.As of the end of July, more than 177,000 soldiers were deployed, forward stationed or assigned to more than 150 countries on at least five of the world’s continents, according to the Times. As recently as a couple of years ago, many of the hotspots where the Army is engaged now had not yet emerged.“There wasn’t much discussion about Russia. In fact, nobody talked about going back to Iraq. There was no ISIL,” he said. “We’re trying to work all these issues simultaneously, and you have to have enough size to respond when something goes bad. That’s the concern,” Odierno said.last_img read more

Video Building Houstons Super School Chapter 1

first_imgFurr High School wants to become a super school.After winning $10 million with XQ: The Super School Project, they’re rethinking the high school experience.The XQ project aims to create a new model of learning, so the American education institutions are better keeping up with the times. It was founded by Laurene Powell Jobs, the widow of former Apple CEO Steve Jobs.Keep up with new episodes of Imaginarium by subscribing to our YouTube channel. Sharelast_img

Texas Oil Industry Experts Say Mexicos Plan to Halt Fuel Imports Wont

first_imgReuters/Alexandre Meneghini/Via The Texas TribuneNewly elected Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador gestures to supporters in Mexico City on July 1, 2018.After a dramatic spike in gasoline prices incited widespread protests in Mexico last year, then-presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador made a promise that caught the attention of Texas officials and the state’s oil and gas industry: The veteran left-wing politician vowed, if elected, to halt the import of gasoline and diesel from the United States and other countries by 2021.The promise — which López Obrador had previously mentioned and which he reiterated one week after winning in a historic landslide last month — was a key component of his national development platform in his third run for the presidency.During the race, he vowed to reverse policies pursued by his predecessor, Enrique Peña Nieto, that made the country more reliant on the international gasoline market prices. He told supporters it would result in cheaper and more dependable fuel.“Refineries will be built, gas extraction will be promoted, and the electric industry will be strengthened,” López Obrador said in November 2016, more than a year and a half before the July 1 election. “All this to stop buying gasoline and other fuels abroad.”Such a policy could have enormous implications for the Texas economy. The state’s refineries produce much of the gasoline and diesel imported to Mexico, where about three out of every five liters of gasoline consumed comes from the United States.But Texas’ energy regulators, industry groups and experts downplay the potential impacts, casting doubt on López Obrador’s ability to keep his promise — at least immediately.They say Mexico has a long way to go to wean itself off foreign fuel imports. And they also don’t see Mexico severing ties with a top trading partner.There’s a sense that López Obrador’s promise was more political than practical, said Steve Everley, managing director of FTI Consulting. Ultimately, he said, economics — and a strong and established trade relationship — will win out.“That doesn’t mean you don’t take it seriously,” Everley added. “You don’t look at something that’s threatening $14 billion of economic activity and just sort of whistle on past it. But I think we also need to be realistic about the interrelationship between Texas and Mexico and how valuable that is both for them and for us.”López Obrador’s plan calls for the construction of a refinery in his home state of Tabasco in southeastern Mexico and the rehabilitation of six existing refineries to increase the amount of fuel they can produce. That would cost a combined $11.3 billion.“It’s very optimistic,” said Texas Tech University economics professor Michael D. Noel. “I will say that in terms of Texas refineries the impact in the short term is likely to be very, very low, and the reason is that you can’t build a refinery overnight. Those things take a long time.”Noel said Texas refineries could stand to benefit from increased Mexican energy production if it outpaces refinery construction, which may require the country to export fossil fuels to the United States for processing.Mexico currently only meets one-third of its fuel demand domestically, said Texas Railroad Commissioner Ryan Sitton. Last year, the Mexican market consumed 797,100 barrels of gasoline per day and 365,500 barrels per day of diesel, according to data from Pemex, Mexico’s state-run oil company. Only 35 percent of that came from Mexican refineries.The U.S. Energy Information Administration doesn’t keep track of how much of U.S. fuel exports to Mexico come from Texas refineries. However, Sitton — one of three elected officials who regulate the state’s oil and gas industry — said Texas refineries sell about 800,000 barrels of gasoline and diesel a day to Mexico, which would mean Texas provides Mexico with an overwhelming majority of its fuel.“It’s a pretty big shot,” said Sitton. “That’s gasoline production from four or five large refineries.”Asked a few days after the July 1 election about his ambitious three-year deadline to build a new refinery, López Obrador, who takes office Dec. 1, pointed out that India achieved a similar goal.That country’s Jamnagar complex was able to nearly double its capacity to 1.2 million barrels per day between 2005 and 2008 by building a second refinery at a cost of $6 billion.Experts say refinery repairs could prove to be the fastest way for López Obrador to achieve his goal.“[Building] a refinery takes eight years to do well. A rehabilitation takes between 6 months and a year, costs much less and maybe can reach 60 percent capacity,” said Duncan Wood, director of the Mexico Institute at the Wilson Center in Washington, D.C.Jorge Canavati, co-president of the International Affairs Committee at the San Antonio Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, said even if Mexico increases its production, market prices will ultimately dictate how much fuel it imports. “When Pemex was aggressively producing, Pemex also imported [gasoline],” he recalled.Last year started for Mexicans with a rise in gasoline prices of 20 percent, a situation that sparked a series of protests in January.Experts also say three years would be enough time for Texas refineries to find a new market for their products. With the lifting of a ban on most crude oil exports in 2015 and the enactment of various policies to boost natural gas exports, the United States is poised to become a top fossil fuel exporter to Asia and Europe.Susan Grissom, chief industry analyst at American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, scoffed at the idea that the loss of the Mexican market would have a big impact on the United States.“You know, the world adjusts,” she said.But it would be a major hole to fill. More than half of the gasoline the United States exported in 2017 went to Mexico, according to the Energy Information Administration. And Mexico has been increasing its imports in recent years due to refining problems. Pemex, which also oversees refining in Mexico, decreased its capacity to make gasoline in the first quarter of 2018 to 220,000 barrels per day. That’s compared to 421,000 barrels per day in 2014.Energy experts say domestic fuel production has dropped because Mexico has failed to invest in repairs to its aging refineries. Its last one was built more than 40 years ago. There are six refineries in total.Everley said no fuel export market more sense for the United States — and Texas — than Mexico.“The question is not whether products refined in Texas can find a market,” Everley said. “The question here is: Do we want to upset a strong trading relationship between Texas and Mexico?”Disclosure: Texas Tech University has been a financial supporter of The Texas Tribune, a nonprofit, nonpartisan news organization that is funded in part by donations from members, foundations and corporate sponsors. Financial supporters play no role in the Tribune’s journalism. Find a complete list of them here. Sharelast_img read more

The origins of polarized nervous systems

first_imgComb Jelly from phylum Ctenophora. Credit: ctenophore.wikispaces.com (Phys.org)—There is no mistaking the first action potential you ever fired. It was the one that blocked all the other sperm from stealing your egg. After that, your spikes only got more interesting. Waves of calcium flooding the jointly-forged cell stiffened its glycoprotein-enhanced walls against all other suitors and kicked off the developmental program ultimately responsible for constructing your brain. Unlike the nervous systems of the lower forms of life, our neurons have a clearly polarized form—a single output axon projecting far to parts unknown is charged by input dendrites feeding on the local metabolic soup de jour. The origins of this polarity in neurons, and therefore in nervous systems in general, are written in the primitive body plans of the mostly gelatinous organisms still hailing intact across deep time. Journal information: Journal of Experimental Biology This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: The origins of polarized nervous systems (2015, March 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-polarized-nervous.html Complex nerve-cell signaling traced back to common ancestor of humans and sea anemones How a blunt multipurpose neuronal toolkit that originally evolved to nourish was morphed into the precise cellular utensils we now use to mince the world is the subject of a new special issue in the Journal of Experimental Biology (JEB). The story of the acquisition of polarity, or rather the loss of universality, in the flow of resource through crude nerve nets is the story of our brains. Last year,Tim Jegla from Penn State published work showing that the human Erg potassium channels that are tuned to repolarize the long action potentials underlying the strong muscular contractions of our hearts have their origins in the earliest nervous systems ever evolved. Since then he has been piecing our brains together by tracing the evolution of related channels like the EAG potassium channels, and the so-called Shaker potassium channels in various primitive organisms. The creatures that have been the most informative mostly fall into taxonomic groups of typically radially-symmetric animals named with a strange variation on the letter C. The ‘cnidarians’ are animals like hydras and the true jellyfish, while the ‘ctenophores’ are the comb jellies that swim with cilia. In an article on polarity written together with Melissa Rolls, Tim explores how the positioning of different kinds of channels by the cytoskeleton (at places like the axon initial segment, nodes, and dendrites) is crucial for establishing directional signalling in neurons. So I asked him point blank if he could nail down when polarity first evolved. He said it was likely in an ancestor of the parahoxozons, a group defined by their possession of at least one of the Hox/ParaHox genes associated with the the specification of the body axis. With genetic experiments now in progress in his lab Jegla is looking for indications that polar neurons exist, contrary to the current literature, even in the lowly sea anemone. As cnidarians, anemone are privy to the benefits of parahoxozoans, something the ctenophores cannot claim. More information: Journal of Experimental Biology, jeb.biologists.org/content/current © 2015 Phys.org In looking for larger developmental trends in which to anchor the idea of increased polarity, or loss of flexibility in neurons, ctenophores may have other secrets to tell. One author writing in the special issue of JEB suggests that recent whole genome data puts ctenophores as a sister group to all other animals, placing them at the earliest branching lineage—a move which would make them a more basal metazoan than even SpongeBob himself. Two factors which complicate such analysis are convergent evolution and the loss of genes and function. We might imagine that the possibility of having at least two independent origins for neural systems exists regardless of which lineage was prior.It has been known since the work of Chun in 1880 that when ctenophore blastomeres are separated at the two-cell stage each half-embryo develops exactly half of adult structures. It seems that this high degree of determinism at the organism level, which fades in the progression of species, contrasts with the aquisition of specification at the cell level. Among the important proteins known to exist in these primitive organisms are various kinds of G-protein coupled receptors and gap junctions. Originally it looks like these proteins played important roles in cell adhesion and communication, and therefore in early development and specification of the body plan. Enzymes to synthesize and transport neurotransmitters were also present early on. A trend in moving to more advanced body plans, and neurons, is the restriction of the expression of these transmitter systems to specific cells. On top of this there is an inexorable refinement of multipurpose symmetric synapses into asymmetric synaptic diodes, with concommitant exclusivity of transmitter profile in both dense core and clear vessicles. In creature like planarians, worms, or flies, the percentage of neurons we might call ‘polar’ becomes an increasingly important thing for us to take account of. In C. elegans for example, many neurons, with the exception of the elaborate and highly branched sensory neurons that span the whole body, are fairly simple with just a few processess containing synapses that can be both pre and post synaptic. The neurons of many insects, like drosophila, are conspicuous for their dense regions of idiosyncratic branching where the terms dendrite or axon would seem to have little meaning. While the neurons of higher and larger vertebrates are expected to in a sense ‘feel’ every spike they might pull off throughout the whole neuron, it paradoxically seems that tiny invertebrate neurons none-the-less are more likely to contain isolated domains of protected metabolic and electrical activity. The details of all this are to be found at the molecular level, which at this time in the history of neurobiology means the the directions of the ‘plus’ and ‘minus’ ends of various cytoskeletal proteins, and the preferences of the motors that ride them in either direction. Like vertebrates, drosophila have axons that exclusively use plus-end-out microtubules. However, although their dendrites similarly are distinguished by the presence minus-end-out microtubules, one surprise was that almost all of their dendrites were this way. The kicker is that they start out with a even mix like vertebrates do, but over time somehow weed them out. An important element in any potential theory of neurons would be the role of the cell body (the nucleus, centriole and primary cilium) in the ongoing specification of the larger tree of axons and dendrites. A cell body that stands largely aloof from them, whether transiently or permanently, would appear to lose some of the authority it might have if interposed instead between them.The unique geometry of the pseudounipolar neurons of our dorsal root ganglion has been known for a while, but only more recently has the frequent presence of axons sprouting from dendrites in our hippocampus and cortex been appreciated. In seeking explanations for the structure of such neurons the influences of mitochondria in various states of performance and lifecycle should not be underestimated. In fact, mitochondria figure importantly in the entire evolutionary curiosity we have tried to lay out here. The same article above which stirred up question surrounding the primitive phylogeny of sponges also explored newly identified trends that emerge in looking at the sizes and contents of the genomes of mitochondria across metazoans—but that is probably a topic sufficient for another post. Explore furtherlast_img read more

Danish telco TDC Group has appointed the former CE

first_imgDanish telco TDC Group has appointed the former CEO of the Danish national lottery gaming company, Jens Aaløse, as senior executive vice president of its newly established channels business. TDC, which is parent company of Danish cable operator YouSee, announced in May a major restructure that created the new Channels business unit, encompassing all call centres and online departments across the group in a bid to offer “a more efficient and modern customer approach.” At the same time YouSee MD Niels Breining said he was stepping down.last_img